The pioneering work of Branenmark led to a new era in dentistry the era of implant dentistry which had its its back falls in the early era, from thoose early begnings much has changed in implantology, as new knowledge was obtained, the old concepts where repalced with new ones. Implantology has matured many cliinicians intially where doughtful of Branenmarks work because many early impalnts where neither well researched or predectable. The use of dental implants to replace missing tooth is becoming a preffered alternative for restoratvie dentist and their patients, patients who did not seek repalcements are now willing to accept the dental implants, sucess rate is also getting better, as the physical design, surface technology and also clinical experince become better Currently there are two basic types of impalnts two stage and single stage, the two stage was was intorduced and devolped by Branenmark which are refferd to as two piece impalnts, it consists of an implant body and seprate abutment, the implant is placed during a surgical procedure with the top of the implant at the level of bone crest or some distance apical to it the gingival tissue are reapproximated for primary clousre over the top of implant, which is left undisturbed for a period of usually three or six months for osteointergration, this surgical placement technique is reffered to as submerged placemnet,

after sucessful intergration in bone a second surgery is perofrmed and a healing or restorative abutment is connected to implant this is reffered to as second stage surgery, the gingival tissue are reapproximated around the abutment as they would around the tooth, a second healing period is given for approximation of the gums, followed by the placement of abutment and crown.